An Empirical Study on Career Development and Systems in the Traditional Culture Industry －Training of Geiko / Maiko and the Systems of “hanamachi” in Kyoto －
This study is intended as a social scientific investigation as to why in Kyoto alone hanamachi(the Kyoto term for geisha district) areas have maintained their traditions and survived to this day, when most other hanamachi areas around the country lost their competitiveness as an industry and went downhill, with a focus on the two unique features mentioned above. During this process, special note was taken of geiko (Kyoto dialect for geisha) and maiko (geisha in training)as a skilled workforce, as well as ochaya (tea houses) and other systems in hanamachi areas, most notably the policy “refusing of service to customers without an introduction.”
 Gion-kobu, Gion-higashi, Ponto-cho, Miyagawa-cho, and Kamishichiken. Maiko can be found only in these five nahamachii areas.